B02
Emergence and change of registers: The case of Lithuanian and Latvian

The project will investigate the emergence and development of registers by examining the beginning of written transmission of Lithuanian and Latvian. It will focus during phase 1 of the CRC on the works of two pre-eminent pioneers of the new literary languages, Johannes Bretke for Old Lithuanian and Georg Mancelius for Old Latvian, whose works attest a range of genres where intra-individual variation can be observed. Crucial here will be the interactions with the languages that provided translation sources and with those spoken in the multi-lingual environment. The following research questions arise: (i) How do registers emerge, and to what extent to individual authors create them? (ii) How can the influence of loan registers be evaluated? (iii) How can the influence of source languages within a multi-lingual setting be identified? (iv) How do established registers change over time?

Members

Project leader

PD Dr. Anna Helene Feulner

Sprach- und literaturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin


Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Hock

Sprach- und literaturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

wolfgang.hock@hu-berlin.de

Members

Frank Goymann M.A.

Sprach- und literaturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin


Otso Santeri Vanhala

Sprach- und literaturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Student assistant

Johannes Schütz

Sprach- und literaturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Publications & Presentations

    Publications

    2023

  • Vanhala, Otso  (2023) The grammatically annotated corpus of the pericopes of the Postil of Jonas Bretkūnas[ViVo]
  • 2022

  • Vanhala, Otso  (2022) Verbal derived stems and semantics in prefixed verbs in the earliest Lithuanian text In:  Lietuvių kalba [ViVo]

    This article discusses the deverbal verb derivation by the means of the prefixes in the Old Lithuanian language based on the data of about 110 primary verbs and their approximately 460 derivates attested in the Gospels and Epistles (ViE) and the Catechism (ViC) of Baltramiejus Vilentas, with additional data from other contemporary sources.

    By comparing the derived verbs with their bases occurring in the texts, the co-occurring morphological and semantical changes were found out. Attention is brought on the together occurring morphological and semantical changes used in deriving telic verbs from their often atelic bases, e.g. the loss infinitive formants -ė-, and -o-, as in giedoti “to sing”→ pragysti “to start to sing, to start to crow”, or the ablaut change in šaukti “to shout” → prašukti “to cry out, to exclaim”. The change in telicity can be used to classify the derived verbs into aktionsart classes (e.g. ingressive, delimitative). The telic ingressive and momentaneous derivatives also have the nasal infix or sta formant in the present tense.

    It is shown that the non-prefixed verbs with ingressive or momentaneous meaning of the type gysti occur extremely rarely in the oldest Lithuanian texts, and are better seen as later de-prefixed derivatives of the type pragysti. Similarly, the derived type pragiedoti is rare in Old Lithuanian as the prefixation is usually accompanied by the shortening of the infinitive stems in the derivatives of this semantic class, leading to pragysti, although the type pragiedoti also occurs. This has led to the formal patterning of the derivatives and base verbs into two new models similar to that of degtisudegti: gystipragysti and giedotipragiedoti.
  • Goymann, Frank; Schütz, Johannes  (2022) Perfekt und Nebensätze im Altlettischen In:  Linguistica Lettica [ViVo]
    This article analyzes the emergence of functional variation of language in the early stages of the old Baltic languages as a part of the ongoing research of functional variation of the DFG-funded project CRC 1412 “Register”. It will be described how language usage varies according to the communicative goals and function of a text and shown that texts with two different functions can be found in the postils that were used in the Christianization process of the Baltic countries in the 16th and 17th century. Using the Lang=gewünschte Lettische Postil of Georg Mancelius, it will be shown that functionally motivated variation in the usage of the perfect and in the usage of forms of the preteritit active participle without an auxiliary in subordinate sentences can be found in the Old Latvian language.
  • Vanhala, Otso  (2022) Momentaneous derived verbs in Vilentas’s texts In:  Linguistica Lettica [ViVo]

    As the first part of the analysis of deverbal verb derivation in the Prussian Lithuanian texts up to the 17th century,  I investigated the relationship between the prefixed momentaneous verbs in the Gospels and Epistles and in the Catechism of Baltramiejus Vilentas. Based on an empirical study of the verbs in their contexts, I allocated each verb under investigation into the Vendler (1957) classes (state, activity, achievement, accomplishment) and annotated the verbs by valency. After this, I compared the momentaneous derived verbs with their attested unprefixed base verbs which mostly are of the mixed type. Morphologically, it turns out that the mixed verbs are to be seen as primary and not as derivatives as the formant (-ė- or -o-) of the infinitive stem might suggest since there are no attested primary verbs without the formant, e.g. *mokti, *moksta. The prefixed momentaneous verbs have the infix/sta-formant in the present stem, the prefix in all stems, and additionally no suffix in the infinitive stem in contrast to their base verbs.

    Semantically, the base verbs are in the activity and state classes, and their derivatives in the achievement class. By this comparison, the derived achievement verbs are allocated into the class of momentaneous (including ingressives and terminatives) aktionsart, derived from their activity and state base verbs.
  • 2021

  • Feulner, Anna Helene  (2021) Luther und die Register der altlitauischen Glaubensverkündigung In:  Luthers Deutsch in Mittel- und Osteuropa [ViVo]
  • Presentations

    2022

  • Vanhala, Otso  (2022) Verbal derived stems and semantics in prefixed verbs in the earliest Lithuanian texts In:  Third Pranas Skardžius Memorial Conference [ViVo]
  • 2021

  • Vanhala, Otso  (2021) Verbal derivation patterns in the writings of Vilentas In:  XIII International Congress of Balticists [ViVo]

Contact

Frank Goymann M.A.

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

+49 (0)30 2093 - 12705