Schneider, Sarah; Lindscheid, Pia; Lukassek, Julia; Shadrova, Anna; Lüdeling, Anke  (2021) A Challenge for Contrastive L1/L2 Corpus Studies: Large Inter- and Intra-Individual Variation Across Morphological, but Not Global Syntactic Categories in Task-Based Corpus Data of a Homogeneous L1 German Group In: Frontiers in Psychology  [DOI] [ViVo]
In this paper, we present corpus data that questions the concept of native speaker homogeneity as it is presumed in many studies using native speakers (L1) as a control group for learner data (L2), especially in corpus contexts. Usage-based research on second and foreign language acquisition often investigates quantitative differences between learners, and usually a group of native speakers serves as a control group, but often without elaborating on differences within this group to the same extent. We examine inter-personal differences using data from two well-controlled German native speaker corpora collected as control groups in the context of second and foreign language research. Our results suggest that certain linguistic aspects vary to an extent in the native speaker data that undermines general statements about quantitative expectations in L1. However, we also find differences between phenomena: while morphological and syntactic sub-classes of verbs and nouns show great variability in their distribution in native speaker writing, other, coarser categories, like parts of speech, or types of syntactic dependencies, behave more predictably and homogeneously. Our results highlight the necessity of accounting for inter-individual variance in native speakers where L1 is used as a target ideal for L2. They also raise theoretical questions concerning a) explanations for the divergence between phenomena, b) the role of frequency distributions of morphosyntactic phenomena in usage-based linguistic frameworks, and c) the notion of the individual adult native speaker as a general representative of the target language in language acquisition studies or language in general.
Belz, Malte; Mooshammer, Christine; Zöllner, Alina; Adam, Lea-Sophie  (2021) Berlin Dialogue Corpus (BeDiaCo): Version 2 [ViVo]
BeDiaCo contains topic-led and task-led spontaneous dialogues of 36 participants as well as read word lists. The main corpus BeDiaCom contains 16 subjects not known to each other in a co-present face-to-face situation. The subcorpus BeDiaCov contains 20 subjects known and familiar to each other in a co-present face-to-face situation and, additionally, in a spatially separated videoconference situation. The corpus contains audio and TextGrid files and is annotated by employing a multi-layer architecture. In addition to a diplomatic transliteration and its phonetic segmentation, further annotation levels contain, for example, annotation values for filler particles, intonation phrases, dialogue structure, word types, and the realization of inflection.
Liu, Mingya; Rotter, Stephanie; Giannakidou , Anastasia  (2021) Bias and Modality in Conditionals: Experimental Evidence and Theoretical Implications In: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research  [DOI] [ViVo]
The concept of bias is familiar to linguists primarily from the literature on questions. Following the work of Giannakidou and Mari (Truth and Veridicality in Grammar and Thought: Modality, Mood, and Propositional Attitudes, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2021), we assume “nonveridical equilibrium” (implying that p and ¬p as equal possibilities) to be the default for epistemic modals, questions and conditionals. The equilibrium of conditionals, as that of questions, can be manipulated to produce bias (i.e., reduced or higher speaker commitment). In this paper, we focus on three kinds of modal elements in German that create bias in conditionals and questions: the adverb wirklich ‘really’, the modal verb sollte ‘should’, and conditional connectives such as falls ‘if/in case’. We conducted two experiments collecting participants’ inference about speaker commitment in different manipulations, Experiment 1 on sollte/wirklich in ob-questions and wenn-conditionals, and Experiment 2 on sollte/wirklich in wenn/falls/V1-conditionals. Our findings are that both ob-questions and falls-conditionals express reduced speaker commitment about the modified (antecedent) proposition in comparison to wenn-conditionals, which did not differ from V1-conditionals. In addition, sollte/wirklich in the antecedent of conditionals both create negative bias about the antecedent proposition. Our studies are among the first that deal with bias in conditionals (in comparison to questions) and contribute to furthering our understanding of bias.
Wiese, Heike; Sauermann, Antje; Bracke, Y.  (2021) Coherence and language contact: Orderly heterogeneity and social meaning in Namibian German In: The coherence of linguistic communities: Orderly heterogeneity and social meaning [ViVo]
Wiese, Heike  (2021) Communicative situations as a basis for linguistic systems: Integrating linguistic multi-competence with grammatical structure In: Working Papers in Urban Language & Literacies [ViVo]
This paper brings together two research strands that rarely interact and might even seem in-commensurable, namely sociolinguistic approaches to linguistic fluidity and multi-competence on the one hand, and structural approaches to linguistic coherence and grammatical systems on the other hand. I show that we can reconcile insights from these two strands in a linguistic architecture that takes communicative situations as the core of linguistic systematicity, and integrates them into lexical representations. Under this view, communicative situations are the basis for linguistic coherence and grammatical systems, while languages can emerge as optional sociolinguistic indices.
Belz, Malte; Zöllner, Alina; Terada, Megumi; Lange, Robert; Adam, Lea-Sophie; Sell, Bianca Maria  (2021) Dokumentation und Annotationsrichtlinien für das Korpus BeDiaCo  [DOI] [ViVo]
BeDiaCo contains topic-led and task-led spontaneous dialogues of 36 participants as well as two read word lists per subject. The main corpus BeDiaCom contains 16 subjects not known to each other in a co-present face-to-face situation. The subcorpus BeDiaCov contains 20 subjects known and familiar to each other in a co-present face-to-face situation and, additionally, in a spatially separated videoconference situation. The corpus contains audio and TextGrid files and is annotated by employing a multi-layer  architecture. In addition to a diplomatic transliteration and its phonetic segmentation, further annotation levels contain, for example, annotation values for filler particles, intonation phrases, dialogue structure, word types, and the realization of inflection.
Wiese, Heike; Bracke, Y.  (2021) Registerdifferenzierung im Namdeutschen: Informeller und formeller Sprachgebrauch in einer vitalen Sprechergemeinschaft In: Kontaktvarietäten des Deutschen im Ausland [ViVo]
Namibian German has an interesting status among German contact varieties outside Europe. It has its roots in colonisation, but is used by a speech community with German ancestry who live in  Namibia today, which distinguishes it from typical (post-)colonial varieties, and makes it more similar to “language island” varieties of German. However, unlike either of these types – and more similar to the situation within Europe than those – German in Namibia is linguistically vital, it is acquired by children, and also used in public domains. This means that we find not only a number of interesting contact phenomena, but also systematic register differentiation. In our paper, we compare language use in informal and formal settings, address the status of informal vernaculars in speakers’ broader linguistic repertoires, and discuss how standard language ideologies pan out in this setting where German is not the national majority language, and how they interact with markers of local, Namibian identity
Dudschig, Caroline; Kaup, Barbara; Liu, Mingya; Schwab, Juliane  (2021) The Processing of Negation and Polarity: An Overview In: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research  [DOI] [ViVo]
Negation is a universal component of human language; polarity sensitivity (i.e., lexical distributional constraints in relation to negation) is arguably so while being pervasive across languages. Negation has long been a field of inquiry in psychological theories and experiments of reasoning, which inspired many follow-up studies of negation and negation-related phenomena in psycholinguistics. In generative theoretical linguistics, negation and polarity sensitivity have been extensively studied, as the related phenomena are situated at the interfaces of syntax, semantics and pragmatics, and are thus extremely revealing about the architecture of grammar. With the now long tradition of research on negation and polarity in psychology and psycholinguistics, and the emerging field of experimental semantics and pragmatics, a multitude of interests and experimental paradigms have emerged which call for re-evaluations and further development and integration. This special issue contains a collection of 16 research articles on the processing of negation and negation-related phenomena including polarity items, questions, conditionals, and irony, using a combination of behavioral (e.g., rating, reading, eye-tracking and sentence completion) and neuroimaging techniques (e.g., EEG). They showcase the processing of negation and polarity with or without context, in various languages and across different populations (adults, typically developing and ADHD children). The integration of multiple theoretical and empirical perspectives in this collection provides new insights, methodological advances and directions for future research.


Aboh, E.; Smith, N.; Veenstra, Tonjes  (2020) Advances in contact linguistics  [DOI] [ViVo]

Issues in multilingualism and its implications for communities and society at large, language acquisition and use, language diversification, and creative language use associated with new linguistic identities have become hot topics in both scientific and popular debates. A ubiquitous aspect of multilingualism is language contact. This book contains twelve articles that discuss specific aspects of Contact Linguistics. These articles cover a wide range of topics in the field, including creoles, areal linguistics, language mixing, and the sociolinguistic aspects of interactions with audiences. The book is dedicated to Pieter Muysken whose work on pidgin and creole languages, mixed languages, code-switching, bilingualism, and areal linguistics has been ground-breaking and inspirational for the authors in this book, as well as numerous other scholars working on the various facets of this rapidly expanding field.

Baumgärtner, Alena  (2020) Chancenungleichheit durch akademisches Register. Zum Zusammenhang von Bildungsherkunft und sprachlicher Passung im Studium  [DOI] [ViVo]
Die sprachlichen Anforderungen, die mit der Aufnahme eines Hochschulstudiums verbunden sind, können Studierenden in unterschiedlichem Maße Schwierigkeiten bereiten. Der Umgang mit und die Aneignung des akademisch bildungsprachlichen Registers (im Sinne konventioneller sprachlicher Praktiken im Hochschulkontext) sind dabei essenziell für Bildungserfolg sowie die Teilhabe der Studierenden im Hochschulumfeld. In der Masterarbeit 'Chancenungleichheit durch akademisches Register' wird der Einfluss der Bildungsherkunft auf die sprachliche Passung Studierender untersucht. Sprachliche Passung meint in diesem Zusammenhang das Verhältnis des individuellen sprachlichen Verhaltens zu den sprachlichen Konventionen eines Handlungskontextes (hier die Hochschule). Die Arbeit fasst Forschungsbefunde zur herkunftsspezifischen Herausbildung des individuellen sprachlichen Habitus Studierender in Abhängigkeit zur ihrer sozialen Herkunft zusammen und konzeptualisiert akademische Bildungssprache als Register, um Bezüge zwischen strukturellen und individuellen Gegebenheiten herstellen und entsprechende Anforderungen an bzw. Auswirkungen auf die Subjekte ableiten zu können. Die Datenauswertungen von vertiefenden Interviews sowie einer Online-Umfrage stehen im Zentrum der Arbeit. Die Befunde lassen zusammengenommen deutliche Unterschiede in der sprachlicher Passung an der Hochschule in Abhängigkeit zur Bildungsherkunft der Studierenden erkennen und somit auf eine sprachlich bedingte Chancenungleichheit in akademischer Bildung schließen. 

Participation in higher education requires linguistic behavior, which is challenging for all students to a varying degree. The usage and acquisition of the academic register (according to linguistic practices that are suitable in academic contexts) are essential for academic success. The master’s thesis 'Unequal opportunities due to the academic register' deals with the influence of the level of parental education on the linguistic fit of students in higher education. Here the linguistic fit is conceptualized as the ratio of the individual linguistic behaviours and the linguistic conventions at universities. The thesis summarizes research findings regarding the background-specific development of the individual linguistic habitus of students in higher education. In addition, academic language is conceptualized as a linguistic register, so it is possible to create references between individual and structural circumstances and to derive linguistic requirements for the students. The focus of the master’s thesis is on the analysis of in-depth interviews and data from an online survey. The results indicate significant differences in the linguistic fit of students at universities dependent on their level of parental education, thus implying linguistically-motivated inequalities in higher education.
Veenstra, Tonjes  (2020) Introduction In: Advances in contact linguistics  [DOI] [ViVo]
Guescini, Rolf Borgen; Krause, Thomas; Odebrecht, Carolin; Schulz, Konstantin  (2020) Laudatio Repository - Long-term Access and Usage of Deeply Annotated Information Docker Images  [DOI] [ViVo]
This is the dockerized images of the Laudatio Repository software described by the following: The management and archiving of digital research data is an overlapping field for linguistics, library and information science (LIS) and computer science: The departments of Corpus Linguistics and the Computer and Media Service (CMS) at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and The National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control (INRIA France) are project partners cooperating with the Berlin School of Library and Information Science (BSLIS). LAUDATIO has developed an open access research data repository for historical corpora. For the access and (re-)use of historical corpora, the LAUDATIO repository uses a flexible and appropriate documentation schema with a subset of TEI customized by TEI ODD. The extensive metadata schema contains information about the preparation and checking methods applied to the data, tools, formats and annotation guidelines used in the project, as well as bibliographic metadata, and information on the research context (e.g. the research project). To provide complex and comprehensive search in the annotation data, the search and visualization tool ANNIS is integrated in the LAUDATIO-Repository.
Alexiadou, Artemis; Oikonomou, Despina; Golcher, Felix  (2020) Quantifier scope and information structure in Greek In: Glossa: a journal of general linguistics  [DOI] [ViVo]
In this paper, we investigate the availability of inverse scope interpretation in doubly-quantified sentences in Greek. A rather coarse and, as we show, inaccurate empirical generalization is that languages with relatively free word order do not have inverse scope readings, since movement is always spelled-out. In Greek there is little experimental work testing inverse scope with DP-quantifiers and there is considerable disagreement among linguists regarding its availability. Our goal is two-fold: i) to contribute towards a better understanding of the empirical facts and ii) to explore the relation between inverse scope availability and the syntax and semantics of different configurations. As we show, inverse scope is generally acceptable by Greek speakers, with the exception of environments with Clitic Left Dislocation. Our data add up to recent studies in other languages which suggest that the critical factor for the (non)-availability of inverse scope is the properties of each individual construction and not a dichotomy between different types of languages.
Weirich, Melanie; Jannedy, Stefanie; Schüppenhauer, Gediminas  (2020) The Social Meaning of Contextualized Sibilant Alternations in Berlin German In: Front. Psychol., 11  [DOI] [ViVo]